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Bladder Cancer

About the bladder, renal pelvis, and ureter

The bladder is a hollow structure in the pelvis that holds pee before urination. The bladder is an important element of the urinary system because of this function. The kidneys, ureters, and urethra are all part of the urinary tract. The renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped portion of the kidney that collects urine and transports it to the ureter. Each kidney has a ureter, which connects to the bladder. The tube that takes urine out of the body is known as the urethra. The urinary system also includes the prostate gland.

The bladder, like the rest of the urinary system, is lined with urothelium, a layer of cells. The muscularis propria, or bladder wall muscles, are separated from this layer of cells by the lamina propria, a thin fibrous band.

About bladder cancer

Bladder cancer develops when healthy cells in the bladder lining, termed urothelial cells, alter and grow out of control, resulting in a tumor. The renal pelvis and ureters are likewise lined by urothelial cells. Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is a kind of urothelial cancer that arises in the renal pelvis and ureters. It is treated in the same way as bladder cancer in the majority of instances, as detailed in this handbook. Tumors can be malignant or noncancerous. A malignant tumor is one that has the potential to develop and spread to other regions of the body. The term “benign tumor” refers to a tumor that can develop but not spread. Bladder tumors that are benign are extremely uncommon.

Types of bladder cancer

There are also less common types of bladder cancer, such as bladder sarcoma and small cell bladder cancer. Bladder sarcomas often occur in the fat or muscular layer of the bladder. Small cell bladder cancer is a rare type of bladder cancer that is likely to spread to other parts of the body.

Risk Factors

The following factors may raise a person’s risk of developing bladder cancer:

Tobacco consumption : Cigarette smoking is the most prevalent risk factor, although other tobacco products such as cigars and pipes can significantly increase the risk of bladder cancer. Smokers are four to seven times more likely than nonsmokers to acquire bladder cancer.
Age : The chances of developing bladder cancer increase with age. Over 70% of bladder cancer patients are over 65 years old.

Gender: Men are four times more likely to develop bladder cancer than women, but women are more likely to die of bladder cancer than men. Delayed diagnosis of bladder cancer can also occur in women.

Race: Whites are more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer as blacks, but blacks are twice as likely to die of the disease.

Chemicals Chemicals used in the textile, rubber, leather, dye, paint, and print industries, as well as several naturally occurring chemicals, aromatic amines, and other chemicals, can all raise the risk of bladder cancer.

Chronic bladder problems: Bladder cancer can be exacerbated by bladder stones and infections. Bladder cancer is more likely in patients who are paralysed from the waist down, use urine catheters, and have a history of urinary infections.

Cyclophosphamide use: People who have had chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer.

Personal history: People who have had bladder cancer in the past are more likely to acquire it again.

Schistosomiasis: People who have some form of this parasite are more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Schistosomiasis occurs in parts of Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East

Arsenic exposure: Arsenic is a naturally occurring chemical that, when ingested in excessive amounts, can cause health concerns. It has been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer when present in drinking water. The chances of getting exposed to arsenic is dependent on where you live and whether you obtain your water from a well or a system that fulfils arsenic guidelines.


People with bladder cancer may experience the following symptoms and signs. Sometimes, people with bladder cancer do not have any of these changes. Alternatively, the cause of the symptoms may be another non-cancerous condition.


Surgery: Surgery is the removal of the tumor and surrounding healthy tissue during surgery. There are different types of surgery for bladder cancer. Your medical team recommends specific surgery based on the stage and severity of the condition.

Therapies using medication: Systemic therapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. These types of medicines are given by the bloodstream or by mouth and reach cancer cells throughout the body (the “system” of “systemic therapy”). Systemic therapy is usually prescribed by an oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with drugs.

The types of systemic therapies used for bladder cancer include:

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells by blocking the growth, division, and formation of new cells. Chemotherapy regimens or schedules usually consist of a specific number of cycles that are administered over a set period of time. Patients can receive one medicine at a time or different combinations of medicines on the same day.

There are two types of chemotherapy that can be used to treat bladder cancer. The type and timing of administration recommended by the doctor depends on the stage of the cancer. Patients should discuss chemotherapy with their doctor before and after surgery

Intravesical chemotherapy: . Intravesical, or local, chemotherapy is typically given through a urologist. During this sort of therapy, tablets are added into the bladder thru a catheter that has been inserted thru the urethra. Local remedy handiest destroys superficial tumor cells that are available in touch with the chemotherapy solution. It can’t attain tumor cells withinside the bladder wall or tumor cells which have unfold to different organs.
Systemic chemotherapy: The most common regimens for systemic, or whole-body, chemotherapy to treat bladder cancer include:

Immunotherapy: TImmunotherapy, also called biological therapy, aims to strengthen the body’s natural defenses to fight cancer. It uses materials made in the body or in the laboratory to enhance, target, or restore the function of the immune system. It can be administered topically or systemically.

Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to eliminate cancer cells is known as radiation therapy. A radiation oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer patients using radiation treatment. External-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation delivered from a machine outside the body, is the most prevalent method of radiation treatment. Internal radiation treatment, also known as brachytherapy, is a type of radiation therapy that uses implants to deliver radiation. Brachytherapy, on the other hand, is not employed in the treatment of bladder cancer. A radiation therapy regimen, often known as a schedule, is made up of a defined number of treatments administered over a set amount of time.